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VIII SIMPOSIO NACIONAL SOBRE TALUDES INESTABLES

 

 

BIANCHINI OFFERS YOU A WIDE RANGE OF PRODUCTS AND 
 SERVICES AIMED AT COVERING MULTIPLE SOIL REINFORCEMENT 
 APPLICATIONS, SUCH AS GREEN WALLS, EMBANKMENT BASE 
 REINFORCEMENT ON SOFT GROUND, ETC. AND GUARANTEES 
 YOU  CONTINUOUS TECHNICAL SUPPORT AT ALL LEVELS OF THE 
 WORKS.

The concept of reinforced ground is very old. If an embankment is built using unstable soil, or with a slope exceeding the internal friction angle of the material, the resulting structure would be unstable. Ground behaviour must be improved using materials that may increase its stability.

Centuries ago, natural materials were used to achieve that objective, mainly tree branches. In time, increasing technological development and continous research in the civil engineering sector have allowed specific products to be developed with highly technical features, that allow swift, simple placement.

Nowadays, most reinforced earth structures use reinforcement elements (geomeshes) combined with compacted earth and laid out in layers. The combination of “soil + reinforcement” forms a sole mass of soil, also known as structural reinforcement, that stabilises the embankment during its useful life.
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EMBANKMENT BASE REINFORCEMENT: MACGRID® WG

MacGrid® WG is a category of meshes with woven structure. Each mesh is comprised of polyester filaments lined with a protective layer of PVC. The characteristics of the meshes allow products to be made with a variable mechanical resistance between 20 and 200 kN/m in the lengthwise direction and between 20 and 110 kN/m sideways.
The polyester core defines the mechanical characteristics of the geomesh, while the PVC lining has the function of protecting the core against damage during the installation operations and against possible chemical and environmental attacks.

MacGrid® WG is mainly used in reinforcement applications for embankments and reinforced earth in the presence of granular (steep slopes and walls) and non cohesive ground.

It may be used alone or jointly with TRESMA® structures when the wall height (h>8m) does not allow use of the TRESMA® structure as the sole reinforcement.
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EMBANKMENT BASE REINFORCEMENT: PARAGRID® AND 
 PARALINK®

ParaGrid® and ParaLink® are geomeshes for soil reinforcement, the constituting elements of which are polyester strips lined with a protective layer of polypropylene. The strips are thermo-welded together forming a rectangular or square structure.
MacGrid® WG is mainly used in reinforcement applications for embankments and reinforced earth in the presence of granular (steep slopes and walls) and non cohesive ground.
It may be used alone or jointly with TRESMA® structures when the wall height (h>8m) does not allow use of the TRESMA® structure as the sole reinforcement.
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EMBANKMENT BASE REINFORCEMENT: PARADRAIN®

The geomesh Paradrain® is a special type of mesh for ground reinforcement. It is comprised of thermo-welded strips that include a drainage channel and a separation geotexile. The final result is a resistant geomesh with a high drainage capacity.
Each strip of ParaDrain® has a core of polyester filaments covered by a protective layer of polypropylene. The specific strip structure of the geomesh has allowed a lengthwise channel to be designed in each strip to drain the water and separate it from the ground using a strip of non woven geotextile connected to the reinforcement strip.
Thanks to their structure, ParaDrain® geomeshes consolidate the soil while dispersing the water present in the ground.
ParaLink® geomeshes have also been developed for embankment base reinforcement applications in situations requiring high resistance and obtaining high rigidity (embankments on soft ground, piles or on gaps).
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EMBANKMENT BASE REINFORCEMENT: MACBARS®

Bianchini offers you advice on all kinds of projects and provides you powerful analysis and calculation tools, such as MacBars®, a software to calculate embankment base reinforcement that analyses all the features of your project and calculates the most efficient reinforcement solution.
Our program may be used to perform all the analysis required for embankment base reinforcement projects under different conditions. MacBars® allows embankment base reinforcement calculation on soft ground, on gaps (e.g.: karst zones) and on piles. Inputting the required input data (height and width of the embankment, characteristics of the bearing ground, of the piles etc.) the program is able to indicate the necessary resistance topology of the reinforcement geomesh shat must be applied..

DETAIL OF THE PARADRAIN® GEOMESH AND SCHEME OF A REINFORCED GROUND

ASPHALT REINFORCEMENT: MACGRID® - MACGRID® ARV

Asphalt layers on roads, motorways and runways at airports constantly suffer from external actions of loads according to the traffic and temperature oscillations, The medium or long terms effects are mainly production and propagation and cracks or ruts in the structures. Reinforcement of the asphalt layers with geosynthetic materials may be used to inhibit propagation of cracks in new construction, or their reflection in asphalt layers laid on old layers or concrete structures. The most adequate materials in this case are rigid geomeshes. The presence of a mesh does not delay commercement of formation of propagation cracaccess. A reinforcement element in the asphalt layer may increase its life by a factor of three.

The A. Bianchini Ingeniero, S.A. product range to reinforce asphalt includes different polyester and fibreglass meshes, as well as geocompounds (geomesh + geotextile) intended to cover multiple applications and needs.

MacGrid® AR /AR V geomeshes and AR G/AR VG geocompounds are flat synthetic fibre structures (series AR: polyester fibre, series AR V: fibreglass) lined with a polymer protective layer.
MacGrid® AR/AR V geomeshes have a square shaped mesh and the structure may be simple or connected to an unwoven geotexile (series AR G / AR VG) to expedite laying the material on site. The material is also available with a pressure sensitive adhesive. The MacGrid® AR/AR V product range has been developed specifically to reinforce asphalt.

COMPARISON OF CRACK PROPAGATION ON ROADS

The graph shows that, after steel mesh, fibreglass provides the best features with regard to decreasing propagation of cracks in roads. Fibreglass, on the contrary to steel, has the advantage of easy destruction by conventional milling, so it does not cause any problems in maintenance operations.

p_macgridarv_tabla_01

ROCK-FALL PROTECTION: THE MACRO® SYSTEM

Dealing with rock-fall issues requires analysis of the geotechnical risks associated with it, evaluating the critical factors involved in the process and designing adequate protection solutions. These protection measures are comprised of a series of elements that work in co-ordination. That is what we call a SYSTEM.
Durability is a fundamental requisite in construction and maintenance of these structures. Taking that criteria into account, the MACCAFERRI Group, the manufacturer of the products commercialised by A. BIANCHINI INGENIERO, S.A. that has major experience in this field, has developed the MACRO® System (Maccaferri Rockfall Protection System) a system that provides solutions to provide a response to problems related with protection against rock-fall.
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SURFACE PROTECTION AND STABILISATION

Systems to protect against falling materials are a key element in the project and maintenance of infrastructures, as they are highly important in their security. These systems include Triple Twist, BianMat, SteelGrid, HEA Panel and Barriers.

It is fundamental to distinguish between “active” and “passive” protection systems.

PASSIVE SYSTEMS
These are those that do not affect the fall process, but rather work on controlling the mass itself and on collecting it, leading the fallen material to non-dangerous areas.

ACTIVE SYSTEMS
These are those that avoid the natural evolution of instabilities in the mass, preventing movement of the fallen material.
Among others, one may emphasise:

• Flexible structural lining in Soil Nailing applications: deep pins or anchorages that stabilise the ground “cutting” the slide curves. The surface mesh must only hold the unstable material between pins.

• Situations of fractured rocky land: once more, the pins provide a “deep” stabilisation and the mesh takes charge of holding back the eventual unstable material between pins.
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BARRIER BASED CONTENTION PASSIVE SYSTEMS

Erecting barriers to protect roads and railways from falling rocks and other materials (torrential water flow, snow, etc.). To resolve this problem, A. Bianchini Ingeniero, S.A. has a complete range of barriers covering the most usual applications.

DYNAMIC BARRIERS
Among rock-falls, we may mention rocks from very high or inaccessible slopes. Under these circumstances, the only possible means of protection is to place a structure to act as a barrier in the path of the falling material so the rocks stop and accumulate in it without reaching breaking point.

DUNE BARRIERS
The Dune Barrier system is comprised of Tresma® structures and executed with local filling materials. Plant cover is easily established, it reduces environmental impact and its deformation after impact is practically zero.

DEBRIS FLOW FLEXIBLE BARRIERS
Placed in ravines, they halt dragging of all kinds of carried items (water, stone, mud, vegetation, etc.) caused by extraordinary rainfall, that endangers everything in its way.

FLEXIBLE BARRIERS FOR SNOW
These are used to control snow avalanches in mountainous zones, on roads and railways, inhabited zones or ski stations.

STRUCTURAL REINFORCEMENT OF CONCRETE:
WIRAND® METAL FIBRES

Use of steel fibres to reinforce concrete is continually increasing in quantity and applications. Metal fibres were initially used in two fundamental fields:
Projected concrete for temporary tunnel lining and clearing concrete in industrial paving works, airports, ports, etc.

This structural reinforcement technology is being used with excellent results in new applications, such as segmens or rings for final lining of tunnels, prefabricated units and other concrete structures.
Our fibre FF3 is present in engineering works, such as the AVE high speed railway lines, and on Line 9 of the Barcelona Metro, with 42 km of tunnel.

There are now national and international Standards and Draft Standards, both for steel fibres as well as polypropylene fibres.

Fibres with an adequate mechanical resistance to traction, distributed homogeneously in the concrete matrix, form a highly resistant three-dimensional reinforcement, able to bear appreciable deformations, maintaining a good resistance – DUCTILITY – and avoiding propagation of the fissure forming phenomenon, dissipating deformation energy – TENACITY -.

Wirand® fibres to reinforce concrete are produced from steel wire with a low carbon content. They act as a three-dimensional reinforcement, absorbing the tensions applied in the structural element, thus increasing its resistance.

The use of Wirand® steel fibres in the concrete provides a better behaviour of the structure, as it reduces fissure formation, providing greater quality and durability of the works. Other advantages of using Wirand® Fibres are elimination of conventional reinforcement in some applications, thus reducing time and labour costs. It also prevents waste of materials and simplifies the tasks of transport, stocking, handling and placement.

The most usual applications are tunnel construction, paving and prefabricated concrete elements.
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PROTECTION OF CONCRETE AGAINST FIRE: FIBROMAC®

The main objective that must be fulfilled by any system to provide concrete passive protection against fire is to achieve that, if a fire breaks out, the mechanical characteristics of the structural elements of the concrete remain stable during the evacuation process and action by the fire brigade (in a tunnel for example), avoiding loss of human life. Thus, the protection system must act during the first moments of the fire.

The SPALLING effect
When concrete is exposed to fire, the surface temperature begins to increase and the water vapour generated inside gravitates toward the core of the matrix where the temperatures are lower. This phenomenon causes an increase in the internal temperature that eventually exceeds the actual resistance of the concrete, causing a series of violent explosions during the first 20 minutes of the fire (depending on the nature of the material that is burning). The result is flaking of the surface face of the concrete, more commonly known as the SPALLING effect.

Recent research and testing concludes that addition of polypropylene microfibres of diametres under 32 µm significantly reduces the SPALLING phenomenon in concrete during a fire and there is a relation between the number of fibres included in the matrix and the improved behaviour of the concrete in the event of fire.

FibroMac® polypropylene fibres are manufactured from extremely fine filaments, produced by an extrusion process.
FibroMac® fibres are designed to protect the integrity of the concrete when it is subjected to high temperatures and direct fire. They also reduce the fissure formation phenomenon caused by retraction or plastic settling and increase control over exudation and segregation phenomena.

WIRAND®, TESTS AND CHARACTERISTICS

FIBROMAC®, TESTS AND CHARACTERISTICS

In these test images one may observe the improved resistance and characteristics of the samples of concrete reinforced with Fibromac® compared with the samples of non-reforced concrete.

PRODUCTS AND SERVICES AIMED AT PREVENTING
OOR CONTROLLING EROSION AND MOVEMENT OF THE GROUND

Surface erosion is the process of soil particles leaving the surface of the slope, caused by environmental phenomena such as rain and wind. This process may cause notable structural damage to infrastructures or generate pollution of reservoirs and water courses, causing major economic and environmental damage. Slope stabilisation by restoring the plant cover and without using specific structures is not sufficiently safe and never manages to cover 100% of the slope, leaving zones exposed to erosion. Moreover, if the plant cover is reduced or disappeared, major lack of stability problems may appear again.

A. Bianchini Ingeniero, S.A. proposes a series of products with the purpose of protecting against erosion phenomena and permanent stabilisation of slopes, preventing their environmental degradation and facilitating restoration of vegetation in order to achieve perfect recovery of the environmental system.
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EROSION CONTROL: GABION

Gabion structures provide a wide field of applications in erosion control and ground stabilisation. The basic characteristic of the triple twist hexagonal mesh grid is that it facilitates absorption of the efforts borne by these gravity structures and protects the land from erosion of the natural or artificial agents (wind, water, snow, etc.).
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EROSION CONTROL: LINING GABION

Lining gabion is a matress shaped Gabion 17 or 30 cm thick. Its main applications are lining the banks of rivers and canals, protection of bridge abutments, foundation platforms and consolidation of slopes along roads and railway lines. Their function is to protect these sites against the erosive action of water and wind.
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EROSION CONTROL: TRIPLE TWIST MESH

Its function is to control minor rock-falls that take place on the sides of mountains or slopes, and to confine the fragments that have come loose at the base of the slope, thus avoiding greater falls and erosion, and avoiding the fragments being deposited on the roads, lines or areas transited by people.
This system is used when the rocks liable to fall and their fragments are not smaller than the actual opening in the mesh, nor greater than 0.5 m in diameter.
Triple twist mesh is the ideal solution because it provides flexibility in all directions and, even though one of the wires may break, the mesh does not unravel as happens with Single Twist mesh.
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EROSION CONTROL: BIANMAT®

BianMat® is a geoblanket manufactured with thermowelded polypropylene filaments at the contact points. Its main function is to confine the particles of soil, guaranteeing good stabilisation of the surface lined and facilitating seed germination.
BianMat® has a three-dimensional structure with voids in more than 90% of its volume.
It is used to protect slopes against surface erosion and to stabilise coverages in sanitary fillings. Its presence prevents the soil becoming a sterile surface due to the action of rainwater or wind.
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EROSION CONTROL: BIOMAC®

BioMac® is an organic blanket formed by high resistance, slow degradation fibre material, such as straw or coconut fibres, and this is interwoven with synthetic filaments. Its characteristics allow a product with a great resistance and low hygroscopicity to be offered.
BioMac® has multiple applications, especially where one wishes to protect the soil for a longer period, and where one requisites a material with very low environmental impact
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EROSION CONTROL: MACTEX®

Woven and non woven geotextiles in the MacTex® family are regular flat structures, produced by assembling filaments of high tenacity virgin polypropylene fibre.
Thanks to the quality of their production processes, MacTex® geotextiles have excellent technical characteristics and high resistance to chemical and biological degradation. Their high permeability allows fluids to flow through their structure, retaining the soil particles and, thus, replacing the traditional granulometric filters. The MacTex® product range is very large and may be used in drainage works, landfills and repaving streets and roads. Its gram weight, thickness and puncture resistance allow it to be used as a separation element between soils of different characteristics, avoiding these mixing together. They are also used as geomembrane protection to avoid localised efforts, assuring their functionality.
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DRAINAGE: MACDRAIN®

A wide range of drainage sheets for different applications in the field of hydraulics. The MacDrain® range includes different drainage materials comprised of a three-dimensional polymer drainage core and one or two non woven geotextiles that act as filters.

• They form and maintain high flow surfaces over time for liquids and gases,
stabilising the ground.
• Their high robustness ensures minimisation of damage during placement of
the material.
• Their lightness and ease of handling allow very fast placement.
• Protects the water-proofing system against eventual mechanical damage.
• It is a non contaminating material that is resistant to chemical and
biological attacks.

WALL LINING: GAVIARQ

Architectural projects, decoration and landscaping frequently require construction of architectural elements that have decorative characteristics based on the use of stone. GaviArq provides a response to that need by providing the aesthetic quality associated with use of stone, an extraordinary durability and great ease of placement.

GaviArq is a box with a rectangular prism shape prepared using Galfan® electro-welded galvanized wire. It is specifically conceived to line walls of concrete or other materials.

• Easy lining of walls of any type
• Great aesthetic advantages arising from the use of Stone
• Great ease of installation
• High degree of prefabrication.
• Cost competitive
• Quick
• Execution by phases
• Without foundations
• Immediate delivery
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ARCHITECTURE: GABION

Thanks to their aesthetic value and their features, gabions provide multiple solutions for architectural and landscape applications, while having unimprovable qualities for erosion control and land stabilisation. The basic characteristic of triple twist hexagonal mesh grid is that it facilitates absorption of the efforts borne by these gravity structures and protects the ground from erosion.
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ARCHITECTURE: LINING GABION

Lining gabion is a matress shaped Gabion 17 or 30 cm thick. Its main applications are lining the banks of rivers and canals, protection of bridge abutments, foundation platforms and consolidation of slopes along roads and railway lines. Like standard gabions, they provide structural and aesthetic solutions that make them very useful in architectural and town planning applications. They function is to protect these sites from the action of erosion by water and wind.
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ARCHITECTURE: BIANMAT®

BianMat® is a geoblanket manufactured using thermowelded polypropylene filaments at the contact points. Its main function is to confine the particles of soil, guaranteeing good stabilisation of the surface lined and facilitating seed germination.
BianMat® has a three-dimensional structure with voids in more than 90% of its volume.
It is used to protect slopes against surface erosion and to stabilise coverages in sanitary fillings. Its presence prevents the soil becoming a sterile surface due to the action of rain water or wind, and it allows plant cover to be restored on slopes in parks, gardens and other landscape and town planning applications.

EROSION CONTROL, DRY STONE WALLS, CORRECTION
DYKES, RIVER PROTECTION, RIVER BANK
AND CHANNEL PROTECTION

HYDRAULICS: GABION

Metal gabions have provided one of the most widely applied solutions in hydraulic engineering for over a century. Thanks to their great versatility and resistance, they are fit for all kinds of sites, from the source of rivers to where they flow out into lakes, reservoirs or the sea.

• Flexible: Adapts to all kinds of land and its movements
• Quick to install
• Competitive
• Easy to design
• Respects the Environment
• Landscape and environmental integration
• Permeable
• Curved or unique shapes
• Without foundations
• Immediate delivery
• Execution by phases
• Immediately bears loads
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HYDRAULICS: LINING GABION

Lining gabion is a Gabion with a matress shape that is 17 or 30 cm thick. Its main applications are to line the banks of rivers and canals, to protect bridge abutments, foundation platforms and consolidate slopes along roads and railway lines.

• Flexible
• Quick to install
• Competitive
• Respects the Environment
• Aesthetic
• Permeable
• Without foundations
• Immediate delivery
• Execution by phases
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HYDRAULICS: BIANMAT®

BianMat® is a geoblanket manufactured with thermowelded polypropylene filaments at the contact points. Its main function is to confine the particles of soil, guaranteeing good stabilisation of the surface lined and facilitating seed germination. These characteristics make Bianmat® a very useful product in zones exposed to erosion by contact with water.

• BianMat controls and acts as a surface protection against erosion.
• The relatively high permeability of the polymer matrix of BianMat, allows natural settling of sediments on the protected surface.
• BianMat provides an attractive, environmentally ideal solution to prevent erosion damage.
• The geoblanket acts against the effects of wind and rain and holds back fine material, facilitating growth of vegetation.
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DRAINAGE: MACDRAIN®

A wide range of drainage sheets for different aplications in the scope of hydraulics. The MacDrain® range includes different drainage materials that are comprised of a three-dimensional polymer core and one or two non-woven geotextiles that act as filters.

• These provide and maintain high quality flow surfaces over time for liquids and gases, stabilising the land.
• Their high robustness assures minimisation of damage during placement of the material.
• Their lightness and easy handling allow very swift placement.
• It protects the water-proofing systems against eventual mechanical damage.
• It is a non contaminating material that resists chemical and biological attacks.
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WATERPROOFING: MACLINE® Y MACLINE® GCL

The MacLine® geomembranes and Mac Line® GCL bentonitic geocompounds form a large range of water-proofing products. The main applications are protection and water-proofing of floors and structures within the scope of civil engineering.

• High compatibility with the majority of chemical products and effluents
• High mechanical resistance
• “Carbon Black” protection against ultraviolet rays
• Great dimensional stability
• High resistance to impacts and puncturing
• Large sized rolls

CONTENTION WALLS ARE USED TO HOLD
BACK MASSES OF EARTH OR OTHER LOOSE MATERIALS WHEN
THE CONDITIONS DO NOT ALLOW THESE MASSES TO LIE
AT THEIR NATURAL SLOPES.

These conditions arise when the width of an excavation, cutting or embankment is restricted by the conditions of ownership, use of the structure or economy. For example, in construction of railways or roads, the easement width of the track is fixed and the cutting or embankment must be contained within that width. Likewise, the basement walls of buildings must be located with the party lines of the property and contain the soil around the basement.
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GRAVITY WALLS: GABION

These are those whose weight counters the thrust of the land. Due to their large size, they suffer practically no flection efforts, so they are not usually reinforced.

Under these conditions, the most adequate solution is the gabion wall. Gabion structures provide a wide field of applications in the environment and stabilise land. The basic characteristic of triple twist hexagonal mesh grid is that it facilitates absorption of the efforts borne by these gravity structures.
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REINFORCED EARTH WALLS: TRESMA® AND GEOSYNTHETIC

If an embankment is built using unstable ground or a greater slope than the internal friction angle of the material, the resulting structure will be unstable. Soil behaviour must be improved using materials that may increase their stability. That ensures that the material works as a unit. The importance of reinforcment consists in providing the soil cohesion, decreasing the thrust of the earth the wall has to bear. The construction phase is very important, as one must compact by layers of scarce thickness, to provide the soil greater resistance.

Bianchini has developed specific products with high technical features that allow swift, simple placement, such as Tesma® Verde, Tesma® Gabion and the Geomeshes MACGRID® WG, PARAGRID®, PARALINK and PARADRAIN®. It also guarantees continuous technical support at all levels of the works.
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REINFORCED EARTH WALLS: MACSTARS®

Bianchini provides advice in all kinds of projects and assigns these powerful analysis and calculation tools, such as MacStars®, a software to calculate Reinforced Earth Walls that analyse all the characteristics of your project and calculate the most efficient solution.
The MacStars® program performs the necessary analysis for reinforced wall projects with TRESMA® elements. Taking the properties of the ground as a base (internal friction angle, cohesian and specific weight), the profiles and loads (concentrated, distributed, seismic action, etc.) the program allows analysis of Global Stability, Internal Stability, Overturning and Slipping for Reinforced Earth structures. The methods used in the calculations refer to the Balance Limit Method.

DESIGN SCHEMES OF GRAVITY WALLS WITH GABIONS AND WITH REINFORCED EARTH

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